**Lesson 2 : Catapult Design****Number of Lessons: 3 lessons**

**Lesson Length: 45 minutes**

**Grade: 8**

**Subject: Math**

**Rationale:**

**To show the connection between mathematics and medieval history. Especially with respect to****the****past and how it****shaped the future.**

**2. The goal of these lessons is to integrate mathematics, medieval history (specifically knights and**

**catapults), art,**

**and ESL**

**pedagogy.**

**3. To compare the same mathematical concepts and vocabulary in different languages.**

**Prescribed Learning Outcome(s):****A1 demonstrate an understanding of perfect squares and square roots, concretely, pictorially, and**

**symbolically (limited to whole numbers)**

**A4 demonstrate an understanding of ratio and rate**

**A5 solve problems that involve rates, ratios, and proportional reasoning**

Materials and Resources:

Materials and Resources:

**popsicle sticks (20 per group of 3 students).****Masking tape****elastic/rubber bands****plastic cups or bottle caps****computer for youtube vidoes with speakers****colored markers****large poster paper****handouts fill in the blanks**

__Lesson Activities:__

__Hook : 5 min (done after the homework review poster)__You tube video of how to make a catapult.

BODY: Direct Instruction 15 minutes

- Check homework. The cloze work sheet.

- Review the concepts learned yesterday.

- Group work: (6 minutes)

- Get a large sheet of poster paper and get the students working in groups of three.
- Label them off again as acute, right and obtuse.
- Get them to draw the triangle that they represent (obtuse, right or obtuse).
- Then write down everything they can think of relating to any triangle.
- Get students that know different languages to label the triangles in their own language.
- Get them to switch clockwise to write on another groups poster.
- Get the students to tape the posters to the wall for all to look at.
- Pass out the work sheet with the different triangles with important terms shown in different languages. (see handout below)
- Examine the different triangles and get the groups to explain the different language terms. What language is it? How do you pronounce the term? Which word would be easier to use?

**Part 2 Building the catapult**

- Show them the video of how to make a catapult.
- Get in groups of three the same groups we already had.
- Put the instructions up on the screen and let them build a catapult.
- Tell them they do not have to follow the directions word for word but they can do something different if they choose but be aware that there will be a competition. Also the winner will be knighted! That is right someone will win the honor of being called Sir "put a name here".
- They will have the rest of the class to build their catapult and next class we will use the Pythagorean theorem to challenge each group to calculate the appropriate distance they need to be away from the castle wall for their catapult to be effective. The group that can shoot a M&M over the castle wall and into a jar will win.

**Organizational and management strategies:**

**Group work on posters: pick the groups****use a timer that all students can see it.****get one person from each group to pick up supplies for catapult building****pre-package all supplies for the catapult.****make sure all directions are given before giving out materials****ask the students to repeat what they have to do after instructions are given****for group work to be effective there must be clear and explicit instructions**

Assessment and Evaluation:

Assessment and Evaluation:

**I will walk around and listen to what groups are talking about.****I will examine the posters to make sure students are on the right track**

__Universal Design for Learning:__(How can the lesson be inclusive for all student abilities and cultural backgrounds?)- The poster boards scaffold from the vocabulary used in the cloze homework. This will help build knowledge of the mathematical concepts and vocabulary.
- Allowing the students to work in groups and giving each of them a particular task will help with participation and hopefully increase communication.
- This poster approach using different languages will allow every student to contribute to the poster even if their English vocabulary is lacking. I believe that this will help build a caring and safe environment for all language learners.
- Allowing the other language contributors to tell their math views using their own language will be a good lesson for all students. It will also allow the ESL student to have a voice that will be appreciated.